General Ham Info

 

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This page is for basic Ham Radio information. I will add more info as I get it. This information is good for the new Ham as well as the seasons OT who needs a refresher in a certain area.

 

RST Signal Reports

An RST signal report is a report given by the receiving station on the quality and strength of the transmitted signal. Established around 1934, it uses shorthand in the form of numbers to represent the quality of the tome or voice and the strength of the signal. The "R" stands for readability, the "S" stands for strength, and the "T" stands for tone when using CW. Below is the numbering system:

Readability:

  1 = Unreadable
  2 = Barely Readable
  3 = Readable with considerable difficulty
  4 = Readable with practically no difficulty
  5 = Perfectly Readable


Strength:

  1 = Faint Signal
  2 = Very Weak
  3 = Weak
  4 = Fair
  5 = Fairly Good
  6 = Good
  7 = Moderately Strong
  8 = Strong
  9 = Very Strong
 
Tone:

  1 = Very Rough and Broad A.C.
  2 = Very Rough A.C.
  3 = Rough A.C. Tone
  4 = Rough Note, Some Filtering
  5 = Filtered Rectified A.C., But Strong Ripple Modulation
  6 = Filtered Tone, Definite Trace of Ripple Modulation
  7 = Near Pure Tone, Trace of Ripple Modulation
  8 = Near Perfect Tone, Slight Trace of Ripple Modulation
  9 = Perfect Tone, No Trace of Ripple or Modulation of Any Kind

 


 
  Standard Repeater Offsets

Band Output Frequency Input Offset
10 Meters   29.51 - 29.70 MHz   -.1 MHz 
6 Meters 51 - 54 MHz -1.0 MHz 
2 Meters   144.51 - 144.89 MHz    +.6 MHz 
"  145.11 - 145.46 MHz -.6 MHz 
" 146.00 - 146.39 MHz  +.6 MHz 
" 146.61 - 147.00 MHz  -.6 MHz 
" 147.00 - 147.39 MHz  +.6 MHz 
" 147.60 - 147.99 MHz  -.6 MHz 
1.25 Meters   223 - 225 MHz  -1.6 MHz 
 70 cm 440 - 445 MHz  +5.0 MHz 
 " 445 - 450 MHz  -5.0 MHz 
33 cm 927 - 928 MHz

-12.0 MHz

 23 cm 1282 - 1288 MHz 

-20.0 MHz 

 

 

  CTCSS Tones

Continuous Tone-Coded Squelch System tones or PL Tones® are tones used to prevent a repeater from responding to unwanted signals or interference.  By using a tone, the repeater will only respond to signals with the same embedded tone. That will keep the repeater from responding to signals from close repeaters or during tropospheric ducting. Below is a table of commonly used CTCSS tones in Hz used in ham radio.  

 67.0   94.8  131.8 171.3 203.5
 69.3  97.4 136.5 173.8 206.5
 71.9 100.0 141.3 177.3 210.7
 74.4 103.5 146.2 179.9 218.1
 77.0 107.2 151.4 183.5 225.7
 79.7 110.9 156.7 186.2 229.1
 82.5 114.8 159.8 189.9 233.6
 85.4 118.8 162.2 192.8 241.8
 88.5 123.0 165.5 196.6 250.3
91.5 127.3 167.9 199.5 254.1

 

 

ITU Radio Phonetic Alphabet

The phonetic alphabet is a group of words used to identify letters in a message transmitted over the radio. This is used to avoid confusion because when conditions are less than perfect, certain letters sound the same. For instance, B, P, T, and V all sound close enough to cause  problems. But Bravo, Papa, Tango, and Victor do not sound close at all. Below is a table of the current NATO phonetic alphabet used today.

Character Phonetic Character Phonetic
A Alpha  N November 
B Bravo  O  Oscar
C  Charlie P Papa 
D  Delta Q Quebec 
E  Echo R Romeo 
F  Foxtrot S  Sierra
G Golf  T Tango 
H  Hotel U  Uniform
I  India V Victor 
J  Juliet W  Whiskey
K Kilo  X XRay 
L  Lima Y Yankee 
M  Mike Z Zulu 

 

 

  The 60 meter band

The 60 meter band is a fairly new band, given to us in 2011. The differences in this band in relation to all of the others is that we are limited to SSB, CW, and digital, we are limited to 100 watts ERP, and it is a channelized band. We get 5 frequencies that we are able to operate on. Of course, where you set your dial depends on what mode of emission you are using. For SSB, you just put your dial on the frequency. However, for CW and digital, you must put your dial 1.5 KHz above the frequency. Hopefully this will help clear up any confusion.

60 Meter SSB
Channel Frequency (KHz)
1 5330.5
2 5346.5
3 5357.0
4 5371.5
5 5403.5

 

60 Meter CW
Channel Frequency (KHz)
1 5332.0
2 5348.0
3 5358.5
4 5373.0
5 5405.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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